A research on application of steaming process on Tempe production to retrench the use of water was implemented at the Rumah Tempe Indonesia Bogor on May – June 2014. The The objective of this research was to replace boiling process into steaming process in order to decrease used-water.
The research was divided into two phases; the first was tempe producing by three different methods, which were normal process of RTI, modified method by boiling and steaming. The second step was a simple sensory evaluation test conducted among several tempe producers in Bogor.
In comparison with normal tempe producing method that has been done in RTI, several steps were modified in this research. Complete flow chart and comparison can be seen below:
|NORMAL METHOD (1)||APPLIED METHOD IN THIS RESEARCH (2)||OBSERVATION|
|Soaking for 3 hours||-||
Dehulling un-cooked soybean was harder compared to cooked one. Definition of harder :
1. Take longer time and even more water to rinse the beans in order to ensure that all skin were removed.
2. Water for cleaning was always covered by foam even though had been filtered and altered several times
3. The resulted beans are broken form (not as good as cooked beans), its to due to physical texture of the beans that still hard. The water is also foamy and still remain after couple filtering processes
|Soaking 15 hours||Soaking tempe for 24 hours|
|Showering with hot water||Boiling (2a) /Steaming (2b)|
Result of Application
|Steaming (2a)||Boiling (2b)|
|Initial Weight of Soybean (after soaking||1.75 kg||1.75 kg|
|Weigh after steaming/boiling||1.85 kg||1.90 kg|
|Water used||± 1000 ml||± 2200 ml|
|Water used in process was calculated by calculate the difference of water added prior to cooking and remained water after processing (steaming or boiling). Initial water that was used was 2400 ml. Boiling process indeed requires much more water to ensure that all soybean is be drowned, otherwise cooking level of cooked soybean will be uneven.|
|However, this modified method (2) spends much more water in dehulling and filtering process. Elimination of cooking process prior to soaking resulted in uncooked and hard soybean, as the consequences the skin was harder to be removed from the beans through dehulling. Consequently, filtering need to be done more frequent to ensure that the soybean has been clean. Normaly, around 20-40 L of water is needed to normal processing (1), but for applied modified method in the research, around 60-80 water was used|
|Sensory Evaluation||Simple sensory test was done through simple hedonic test, panelists were asked to give their hedonic score to produced tempe with three different methods. The result of sensory evaluation test conducted to tempe producers in Bogor revealed that most of them cannot distinguish tempe that was produced by normal method (1) and tempe that was produced by modified method.|